|1. to do without: survive or exist without something (also: to go without)
- Ex: With prices so high now, I’ll have to do without a new suit this year.
- Ex: As a traveling salesperson, Monica can’t do without a car.
- Ex: It’s a shame that so many poor people in the world have to go without basic necessities of life such as nutritious food and suitable shelter
|2. according to: in the order of; on the authority of
- Ex: The students on the football team were ranked according to height, from shortest to tallest.
Ex: According to my dictionary, you are using that word in your essay incorrectly.
|3. to be bound to: to be certain to, to be sure to
This idiom is used when the occurrence of an event seems inevitable or unavoidable.
- Ex: We are bound to be late if you don’t hurry up.
- Ex: With the economy improving now, their business is bound to make more money this year.
|4. for sure: without doubt (also: for certain)
- Ex: In the dark, I couldn’t tell for sure whether it was Polly or Sarah who drove by.
- Ex: I now for certain that Gene will move back to Washington next month.
|5. to take for: to perceive or understand as
This idiom is usually used when someone is mistakenly perceived. A noun or pronoun must separate the idiom.
- Ex: Because of his strong, muscular body, I took him for a professional athlete. As it turns out, he doesn’t play any professional sports.
- Ex: What do you take me for — a fool? I don’t believe what you’re saying at all.
|6. to try out: to test, to use during a trial period
- Ex: You can try out the new car before you decide to buy it.
- Ex: I can let you try the computer out for a few days before you make a decision.
|7. to tear down: to destroy by making flat, to demolish
- Ex: The construction company had to tear down the old hotel in order to build a new office building.
- Ex: The owners had to tear the house down after it burned down in a fire.
|8. to tear up: to rip into small pieces
- Ex: Tom tore up the letter angrily and threw all the pieces into the trash can.
- Ex: He told the lawyer to tear the old contract up and then to prepare a new one
|9. to go over: to be appreciated or accepted
This idiom is usually followed by the adverb well. (In Lesson 6 this idiom has the meaning to review, as in the second sentence of the second example below.)
- Ex: The teacher’s organized lessons always go over well with her students.
- Ex: The comedian’s jokes weren’t going over well; the audience wasn’t laughing much at all. I think that the comedian should go over his material more carefully before each act.
|10. to run out of: to exhaust the supply of, not to have more of
- Ex: We ran out of gas right in the middle of the main street in town.
- Ex: It’s dangerous to run out of water if you are in an isolated area.
|11. at heart: basically, fundamentally
This idiom is used to describe the true character of a person.
- Ex: James sometimes seems quite unfriendly, but at heart he’s a good person.
- Ex: The Fares often don’t see eye to eye, but at heart they both love each other very much
|12. about to: ready to, just going to
- Ex: We were about to leave the house when the phone rang.
- Ex: I’m sorry that I broke in. What were you about to say?